Renewable Energy and Climate Change
Renewable Energy and Climate Change
Demand for energy and associated services is increasing to keep pace with social and economic development and improve people’s well-being and health. All societies need energy services to meet basic human needs (for example; Lighting, cooking, comfort, mobility, and connectivity) and servicing production processes. Since about 1850, the global use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) has grown to dominate energy supplies, resulting in rapid growth in carbon dioxide emissions.
The greenhouse is in the atmosphere. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report stated that most of the observed increase in the global average temperature of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the provision of energy services contributed significantly to the very high increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases, as it is due to the remarkable increase in greenhouse gas concentrations resulting from human activity. Since the middle of the twentieth century, recent data confirm that the consumption of fossil fuels accounts for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from human activity, 39% from pre-industrial levels, by the end of the world 3. Emissions continue to increase and carbon dioxide concentrations have increased to more than 390 parts per million, There are many options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system while continuing to meet the global demand for services. Some of these options were included in the Fourth Assessment Report, such as energy efficiency and conservation, energy and fossil fuel conversion, renewable energy, nuclear energy, and carbon absorption and storage.
A comprehensive assessment of any portfolio of mitigation options will include an assessment of its mitigation potential and all associated costs and risks, as well as its contribution to sustainable development. This report will focus on the role that the deployment of renewable energy technologies can play in this portfolio of mitigation options.
In addition to having huge potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, renewable energy can provide broader benefits. Renewable energy, if implemented adequately, may contribute to socio-economic development, access to energy, provision of safe energy supply, and reduced negative impacts on the environment and health. In most circumstances, increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy mix will require policies to stimulate changes in the energy system.
Diffusion of renewable energy technologies has increased rapidly in recent years, and their share is expected to increase substantially in light of demand from additional policies to attract the necessary increases in the most ambitious mitigation scenarios. Investing in technologies and infrastructure
Renewable Energy Technologies and their Markets
Renewable energy includes a heterogeneous set of technologies (Summary framework for policymakers) Multiple types of renewable energy can provide electricity, thermal energy, and mechanical energy, as well as produce fuels capable of meeting multiple energy service needs. Some renewable energy technologies can be deployed at the point of use (central). In rural and urban environments, while there are other points spread mainly within the framework of large energy networks (central). Although there is a growing number of renewable energy technologies that are technically complete and deployed at a remarkable rate, there are technologies that are in the early stages of technological maturity and commercialization or occupy space. Specializes in markets from minutes to years of energy for renewable energy technologies ‘i’ can be variable and – to some extent – unpredictable over time scales
Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies
Bioenergy can be produced from a variety of raw materials in biomass, including forests, agricultural and animal waste; Short cycle forest planting; Energy crops; The organic component of urban solid waste; And other organic solids. Through a variety of processes, these raw materials can be used directly for electricity or heat or used to produce gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels. The range of bioenergy technologies is wide and their technical maturity varies greatly. Some examples of commercially available technologies include small and large boilers, granular-based home heating systems, and the production of ethanol from sugar and starch. Advanced integrated power plants for the production of gas from biomass and the production of transportation fuels from lignosols are examples of pre-commercial technologies, while the production of biofuels from algae and some other biological conversion approaches are still in the research and development stage. The applications of bioenergy technologies are centrally located and centralized, while bio-energy has traditionally been a continuous product under the traditional use of biomass in developing countries, which is the most widespread application.
It can be controlled. Bioenergy projects typically target local and regional reliance on the availability of fuel supplies, but recent developments reveal that solid biomass and liquid biofuels are experiencing increasing international trade. Direct solar energy technologies harness solar radiation energy to produce electricity using photovoltaic solar panels (PV) semiconductors and energy concentrates. Solar PV (CSP), to produce thermal energy (heating or cooling, either through passive or active means), to meet direct lighting needs, and it is possible to produce fuels that may be used in transportation and other purposes. The technological maturity of solar applications ranges from research and development (R&D). For example passive and active solar heating, semiconductor photoconductors with silicon chips). Many, but not all technologies are of similar nature (for example fuels produced from solar energy) through relatively mature ones (for example solar concentrators) to mature ones of a standard nature, including It is permitted to be used in centralized and decentralized energy systems. Solar energy is variable, and to some extent, unpredictable, although, The temporal structure of solar energy output in some circumstances correlates relatively well with energy needs. Thermal energy storage provides the option to improve output control for some technologies such as solar concentrators and direct solar heating.
The heat from geothermal reservoirs uses geothermal energy that can be accessed underground. On hot reservoirs that allow adequate and natural access to them, the name of the reservoirs to which Augmented Geothermal Systems (EGS) are applied through wells or other means. Hydrothermal overlooks, but adequately heated reservoirs while optimized by hydraulic catalysis in the surface, fluids of varying temperatures can be used to generate electricity or they can be used more directly in applications requiring heat energy, including urban heating or the use of Low-temperature heating from shallow wells of geothermal heating pumps used in heating and cooling applications. Hydroelectric power plants and thermal applications of geothermal energy are mature technologies. As for the geothermal enhanced systems projects, they are in the pilot and pilot phase and also in the research and development phase. And when geothermal power plants are used to generate electricity, they usually provide constant output.
Harnessing hydropower energy from moving water from high to low places to mainly generate electricity. Hydropower projects include dam projects with reservoirs, natural river flow projects, and internal flow projects, and cover a wide range of projects of varying size. This is diversity
Hydropower with reservoirs that can meet greatly increased needs for electricity and help balance electrical systems that have large mature hydroelectric volumes. Hydropower projects exploit a resource that changes over time. Despite this, the controllable output provided by energy utilities gives hydropower the capacity to meet the huge central urban needs as well as the decentralized rural needs. Energy technologies from renewable energy generation. The operation of hydropower reservoirs often reflects their multiple uses, for example, drinking water, irrigation, flood and drought control, and navigation as well as energy supply.