What are Different Types of Solar Panels
What are Different Types of Solar Panels
There are 3 or more different types of solar panels that you can build.
Here are the top 3 most used types of solar panel material in use today.
1. Monocrystalline Silicon Panels
Also called mono panels, their symmetrical appearance indicates the purity of silicon crystals.
The cells of the single plate are silicon ingots that have been sliced. And you can see that the mono panels have a distinctive appearance as shown in the picture. These panels are the most expensive type and give an efficiency of up to 22.5% in the laboratory, but actually, the cells commercially deployed in 2017 have an efficiency of not more than 17.5% and a life span of 25 years or more. And the color of the cell is italic to dark blue closer to black.
Monocrystalline silicon is used in the manufacturing of high-performance solar cells. These types of solar panels can achieve 17% efficiency, compared to other types of less expensive cells including thin film and polycrystalline which can achieve around 10% efficiency.
Few solar charger companies actually use monocrystalline panels because of the high costs to produce solar cells. Monocrystalline panels are becoming more popular though because consumers are looking for more efficient types of solar panels.
2. Thin Film Solar Cells
This type of solar panel is thin and streamlined as shown in the following figure. And it takes the shape of the surface on which it is installed, most of the developments and research that are currently taking place are based on development in this particular type because it has a streamline, weight, and thickness of little and therefore it is suitable for many applications such as the roofs of boats and transport cars, but one of its disadvantages is that it is the least efficient type and its efficiency is not It is more than 12% and its useful life is less than its single and multiple counterparts and it is only 15 years.
Also called a thin-film photovoltaic cell is a solar cell that is made by depositing one or more thin layers of photovoltaic material on a substrate. The thickness of this layer varies from a few nanometers to tens of micrometers.
Thin-Film solar cells are usually put into categories according to the type of photovoltaic material used, which can be:
- Amorphous silicon a-Si
- Copper indium gallium selenide
- Cadmium Telluride
- DSC or Dye-sensitized solar cells
Thin-film solar cells are really inexpensive to make and they can take a lot of heat, these facts make them a popular choice for big solar farm projects and other really big solar projects. You will rarely see them on roofs of houses though because they are too inefficient.
2. Polycrystalline Silicon Cells
The second type is the polycrystalline silicon cells:
And the difference between it and mono is clear in terms of shape in the previous two images, the first type being regular and pure in color and the second irregular in shape. It is characterized by its lower price compared to single cells due to its low efficiency to less than 16%, and its life span of 25 years or more.
Polycrystalline silicon is also a key component of solar panel construction. The growth of the photovoltaic solar industry was limited by the supply of the polysilicon material. For the first time, in 2006, over half of the world’s supply of polysilicon was being used for the production of renewable electricity solar power panels. Only twelve factories were known to produce solar-grade polysilicon in 2008. Monocrystalline silicon was higher-priced and more efficient than multi-crystalline. This however changed and, in 2011, there was a large excess of production capacity of polysilicon.
These types of panels have lower levels of efficiency than monocrystalline, which makes them more expensive to produce. The good thing is that their construction design makes up for the loss of efficiency. All in all this type of material is good for roofs.
Characteristics of PV Solar Panels
Solar generation depends on the conversion of solar energy (light Sun) directly into electrical energy using a Solar Cell. The following figure shows the basic elements in the system of solar stations connected to the grid.
It is known that the Solar Power Density outside the atmosphere is up to 1370 w / m², but the STC Standard TestConditions on Earth’s surface says that the Power Density is only 1000 w / m² at 25 ° C and AM = 1.5 Air Mass, and the angle of inclination is approximately 50 °.
And just for a quick ticket, the I-V Characteristic appears in the figure below:
It is clear from the previous figure that we will have different values for the product of voltage in the current and therefore it is always preferable to operate the cell of course using the MPP Max Peak Point which gives the largest value for the product of voltage in the current as in the following figure:
The circuit that can achieve this relationship is represented in the figure below as if it were the current source
It is noticed here that the diode is in a downward direction, and the purpose of this situation is to represent the situation at point A when the circuit is open, so we have a high voltage, but zero current in the exit circuit, which is what the previous representation of the cell achieves.
Then the circuit.