Where Should the Solar Panels Be Directed?
It is known that solar panels will produce the maximum amount of energy if the sun’s rays are perpendicular to them, and of course, this cannot happen throughout the day, except by using solar tracking devices. If you do not use this technology, you must direct the solar panels to the side which ensures that the direct rays fall as long as possible on Plates.
Note in the figure that the panels to the south have more brightness than the panels pointing to the north, due to the slope of the path of the sun slightly to the south.
And whatever your place in the northern hemisphere, the sun in any season of the year is always tilted towards the south, therefore all the solar panels of the country which are located in the northern hemisphere must be directed towards the south. The following question remains:
1. How to choose the tilt angle to the south?
The truth is that if you live on the same equator, the optimal tilt angle is zero, which means that the solar panels are placed horizontally, and if you live at the ends of the north or south ball, the most suitable is 90 degrees. But if you are like in Arab countries, the most suitable angle of inclination (south side, as mentioned) depends on your geographical location, and more precisely on the value of the latitude on which you fall.
This question (the angle of inclination) is more difficult than the previous question (side) because the elliptical path of the rotation of the Earth around the sun changes the angle of its inclination also according to the separation as in the following figure.
So the answer is not a fixed number, but each chapter has an optimal tilt angle. There is a simplified rule that can be used to determine the angle of inclination that uses the most solar radiation at all seasons of the year. This rule is:
• In summer: (Latitude – 15 °) = ideal angle of inclination
• In autumn and spring: (degree of latitude) = ideal inclination
• In winter: (Latitude T = 15 °) = Ideal inclination.
The following figure contains the latitudes on which the capitals of the world are located
2. Use solar energy to generate electricity
Solar energy is used for the purpose of producing electrical energy in two or two ways:
1- Photovoltaic system: By using photovoltaic cells to convert photovoltaic solar energy directly into electricity by exposing these cells to photovoltaic energy. In this way, we can get about 10-15% of the energy lost per square meter directly in the form of electricity, as in the examples in the next part.
2 – Can also be used as a system of solar concentrators, which are systems that use lenses and mirrors to concentrate the scattered solar radiation transporting thermal energy to a specific location. According to various and varied mechanisms, this concentrated heat is converted into electrical energy, and therefore in this system, electrical energy is obtained indirectly from solar energy. We show this in the second example of new power plants.